At a press conference held in capital Riyadh, the prosecutor announced his intention to call for the death penalty against anyone found guilty of ordering and carrying out the journalist's murder.
But Jubeir said Prince Mohammed, the powerful 33-year-old heir to the throne, had "absolutely" nothing to do with the killing.
Turkish officials say they believe a 15-member kill team arrived shortly before the incident via private planes from Riyadh.
The prosecution said it now has 21 people in custody, 11 of whom have been indicted with investigations to continue into the others.
The Kingdom of Bahrain reiterated its strong support for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and said its actions on the issue of the citizen Jamal Khashoggi, which was clarified by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Saudi Arabia and the Saudi Attorney General.
The US Treasury said Thursday that it would sanction 17 individuals linked to the "abhorrent killing."On the list was Saud al-Qahtani, a close adviser to the crown prince, and the consul general of the Istanbul mission, Mohammed al-Otaibi".
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has said "the order to kill Khashoggi came from the highest levels of the Saudi government" but that he does not believe King Salman gave it. A bipartisan group of senators, including the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, last month called on President Donald Trump to determine whether the Saudi government had violated the act and to "consider any relevant information, including with respect to the highest-ranking officials in the Government of Saudi Arabia".
The sanctions came amid widespread anger among Saudi allies over the killing and dismemberment of Khashoggi on October 2 in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul, Turkey.
One of them, Ahmed al-Assiri, the former deputy head of intelligence, issued an order for Khashoggi's return on September 29, the prosecutor said.
Thursday's announcement by Saudi Arabia's top prosecutor, Saud al-Mojeb, centre, appears aimed at distancing the killers and their operation from Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman. Also named is Maher Mutreb, who was part of the crown prince's entourage on trips overseas.
And now, the Saudi Arabian prosecution service has said it will seek the death penalty for these "rogue" agents.
In Istanbul, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu told reporters, "They say (Khashoggi) resisted going back to their country and was killed".
Saudi Arabia has asked Turkey to share the results of its investigation and recordings of the killing, and is planning to sign a "special mechanism" to ensure this happens, he said.
Khashoggi was reported to have been chopped into pieces while still alive in a horrifying seven-minute execution in Saudi consulate in Istanbul, Turkey. "This process can not be closed down in this way".
Khashoggi had gone to the consulate in Istanbul to obtain documents for his upcoming marriage. His Turkish fiancée waited outside and first raised the alarm about his disappearance.