For the first time publicly, the review also says that Russian Federation is developing a hypersonic, nuclear-powered undersea torpedo.
While the previous review, in former President Barack Obama's first term, had called for a modernisation of the USA nuclear capability, the more aggressive stance stands at odds with Mr Obama's administration and fits Mr Trump's "peace through strength" world view.
"Recent Russian statements on this evolving nuclear weapons doctrine appear to lower the threshold for Moscow's first-use of nuclear weapons", the review said. "The 2018 NPR addresses these challenges".
The NPR recommends lowering the yield of some existing submarine-launched ballistic missile warheads, and bringing back a nuclear sea-based launched cruise missile, he said.
The threats have changed dramatically since the last time the Pentagon updated its nuclear weapons policy, with Russian Federation re-emerging as a geopolitical foe and both Moscow and Beijing investing in their nuclear arsenals. Root also said there was no "automaticity" to what the USA would do in undefined "extreme circumstances".
Although Russia has very substantially improved its conventional capabilities over the past decade, it has not weaned itself from "non-strategic" nuclear weapons.
All of these additions and advancements will slowly raise the cost of nuclear deterrence from 2.7 percent of the Defense Department's budget today to 6.4 percent of the department's budget in 2029.
The review is calling for all of this along with an overall modernization of the nuclear force because the Pentagon requires an "investment in a credible nuclear deterrent with diverse capabilities", chief Pentagon spokesperson Dana White told reporters. "As someone who knows the horror of a nuclear weapon, I find (the new policy) extremely disappointing", said 83-year-old Shoso Kawamoto in Hiroshima.
The Russian Foreign Ministry has commented on the Nuclear Posture Review, issued by the United States on February 2, naming Russia, North Korea, Iran and China as potential threats to the U.S. national security, Sputnik reports.
North Korea has continued to pursue nuclear weapons development, and Iran retains much of the capacity needed to develop a nuclear weapon within a year of deciding to do so, according to the review.
Weaver, speaking alongside Shanahan, added that the US would be willing to sideline development of the low-yield weapon should the Russians "redress the imbalance in non-strategic nuclear forces".
"Obviously, I would highly discourage any nation from considering such an attack on the United States or our allies - that would not be in your interest to do so, to state the obvious", Rood said. The president has declared his intention to expand the U.S.' nuclear arsenal.
In words of Secretary of Defense James Mattis, "America can afford survival". "In a competitive situation, you also have to hold at risk, in this case, what North Korea holds dear, to remind them, 'Don't do it".
In addition, the NPR stated that the USA had no intention of resuming nuclear testing to enhance the arsenal, "unless we find it necessary".
Raising the profile of nuclear weapons in our defense plans comes at a time when the disastrous consequences of even limited nuclear use is becoming even more apparent. Already, myths of a nuclear Armageddon have monopolized the media space.
"The strategy develops capabilities aimed at making use of nuclear weapons less likely. Only that solution will do".